A comprehensive overview of tapeworm covering subjects like cure, treatment, symptoms, diagnostics, research, causes and pictures
This disease is an infection with larvae of the tapeworm, a flatworm, by eating pork, being an infection acquired by ingestion of eggs of the tapeworm larvae from human and animal excrement. Adult forms of the worm can only produce mild gastrointestinal symptoms, or only to remove parts of the body in the stool.
Tapeworm larvae symptoms are usually absent, and could start if the larvae are located intracranial, determine an outbreak neurological signs. It can be recognized by computer scan. Less than a half of adult patients have the intestinal adult tapeworm and eggs in the stool.
Adult worms can be eradicated with anthelmintics. Treatment includes a combination of corticosteroids, antihelmintics. Surgery may be an option.
Morbidity may result from syncope, stroke, and hydrocephalus or the secondary effects of long-term treatment. Usually, man is the final hosting for the tapeworm larvae, where we find the parasite adult worm in the intestine. The intermediate host where the parasite larvae develop is the pig and the bull.
Man eating infected pork or ox meat containing tapeworm larvae. Pig and ox is infected by eating once with the grass the tapeworm eggs too. The eggs come in the body of these animals and turn into larvae and stays in the muscles. This disease can occur in humans and when humans ingest, as the animals above, the tapeworm eggs, along with fruits and vegetables.
Human infestation can be done even through the regurgitation of stomach tapeworm segments where tapeworm fragments are digested and the embryo released from the eggs penetrate the body through the stomach wall.
Like the animal, the embryo tapeworm eggs arrived in the human body and turn into larvae and are fixed in different organs, thus producing human tapeworms.
In humans, unlike animals, the tapeworm larvae especially locate in the eye or brain, causing severe disease. Location muscle or under the skin is lighter.
Tapeworm larvae sizes can reach several centimeters. Location in the brain is the worst. Patients have pain, headache, seizures, psychiatric disorders, symptoms similar to those of a brain tumor.
Location in the eye cause vision problems and it can go up to blindness. Treatment consists of surgical removal, when possible and treatment of the adult tapeworm from the intestine, if any.
Causes and pathogenesis
This disease is caused by four species of tapeworm T. saginata, T. solium, Diphylobotrium Hymenolepsis latum and nana. Tapeworm transmission is achieved by eating beef raw or partially cooked, which contains the larval tapeworm cysts, or fecal-oral transfer, by unwashed hands, the tapeworm eggs from animal feces or from the human gut. In the intestine the eggs develop into adult worms, which reach lengths up to 10 m. The raw pork meat contains tapeworm larvae, which have penetrated the intestinal wall of the pig and have migrated to muscle, cysticercosis determine its ingestion, severe form of parasitosis.
D.latum is transmitted by inadequately cooked fish meat and H.nana by ingestion of insects.
Humans tapeworm larvae can locate in all tissues: skin, muscle, heart, eyes, brain.
The symptomatology is caused by the inflammation, the host inflammatory response depends on the ability of the larvae to avoid the immune system, and inflammation is usually restricted to the degenerate cysts that fail to avoid human immunity. By involution, the larva is calcified or becomes granulomatous.
Ingested eggs attach themselves to the intestinal wall, and after three months adult worms appear, from which fragments detached in the stool.